Complementarity (physics) (Total 101321 Papers Found)

When and how do democratic institutions deliver accountable government? In addressing this broad question, we focus on the role played by political norms – specifically, the extent to which leaders abuse office for personal gain, and the extent to which citizens punish such transgressions. We show how qualitatively distinct political norms can coexist because of a dynamic complementarity, in which citizens’ willingness to punish transgressions is raised when they expect such punishments to b ...
that can be incurred. She summarizes analytical techniques, including Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and supplies technical data that are useful to analytical chemists. Shashoua includes dramatic case studies, such as the polyethylene head that was used to display a gas mask with vulcanized rubber strips. These had reacted chemically with the polyethylene so that the plastic head suffered irreversible and disfiguring degradation. This shows that sulphur-containing vulcanizing ...
The idea of exchange encompasses the notions of borrowing, adding, and constructing something different in place of the original out of which the new emerges. It also, however, implies dependence since the movement away from—or, as the prefix ex-indicates, beyond—the original points to the new construct's reliance upon the old, unmasking thus its uncertain status of a " mere copy. " The mechanism of continual substitution and compensation, of taking away and giving back, is fundamental to th ...
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.1 Zhou Yi Xi Ci (The Zhou Book of Change •The Survey)said: “Alternation between Yin and Yang is called Tao (Way)”,2 Tao is the law of happen and development and changes for the things, “ Yin-Yang ‘ s greatness and vastness match the images of heaven and earth, change and transformation alternative four seasons, the meanings of the Yin-Yang move ...
Polar decomposition unquestionably provides a notion of factorization in the category of Hilbert spaces. But it does not fit existing categorical notions, mainly because its factors are not closed under composition. We observe that the factors are images of functors. This leads us to consider notions of factorization that emphasize reconstruction of the composite category from the factors. We find that the category of Hilbert spaces is a composition of a totally disconnected abelian groupoid and ...
Optical measurement methods exhibit several potential advantages such as non-intrusiveness, high sensitivity, stability and selectivity. On the other hand the diffraction of light limits their measurement properties. At laser Doppler measurements the diffraction limit results in a complementarity relation between the velocity and the distance of moving scattering objects. In this contribution a novel laser Doppler sensor is presented providing velocity measurements beyond the diffraction limit. ...
With the proliferation of alternative markets, concerns have arisen that they may induce lower liquidity on centralized exchanges. In futures markets, the use of an alternative trading mechanism known as exchange of futures for physicals, or “EFPs”, has increased sharply in recent years. EFPs provide a means to obtain futures positions, coupled with offsetting cash positions, away from the centralized exchange. Traders use EFPs to ensure a desired price on complex packages of trades, thus av ...
General introduction Light provides the most pertinent example of the dual nature of quantum objects; its oscillatory properties served to verify the electromagnetic theory of Maxwell, and its lumpiness, the photons, signalled the dawn of modern quantum theory. The electromagnetic phenomena form an integral part of modern technology. They are at work in all electrical motors, and our communication devices utilize their oscillatory behaviour in essential ways. Our radio receivers and mobile phone ...
The paper focuses on the convergence rate of the augmented Lagrangian method for nonlinear second-order cone optimization problems. Under a set of assumptions of sufficient conditions, including the componentwise strict complementarity condition, the constraint nondegeneracy condition and the second order sufficient condition, we first study some properties of the augmented Lagrangian and then show that the rate of local convergence of the augmented Lagrangian method is proportional to 1/τ , wh ...
In data, bilateral trade is strongly correlated with bilateral GDP comovement. This paper examines whether trade in intermediate inputs explains this empirical fact. I integrate input trade into a many country, multi-sector model and calibrate the model to data on bilateral input-output linkages. With estimated productivity shocks, the model generates an aggregate trade-comovement correlation 30-40% as large as in data. This moderate aggregate correlation emerges because the model matches observ ...
Screening compounds for human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel inhibition is an important component of early stage drug development and assessment. In this study, we developed a high-confidence (p-value < 0.01) hERG prediction model based on a combined two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) modeling approach. We developed a 3D similarity conformation approach (SCA) based on examining a limited fixed number of pairwise 3D similarity scores between a query molecule and a set ...
Acceleration–force setups for multi-rigid-body dynamics are known to be inconsistent for some configurations and sufficiently large friction coefficients (a Painleve paradox). This difficulty is circumvented by time-stepping methods using impulse-velocity approaches, which solve complementarity problems with possibly nonconvex solution sets. We show that very simple configurations involving two bodies may have a nonconvex solution set for any nonzero value of the friction coefficient. We const ...
Bohr’s principle of complementarity constitutes the hallmark and one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. On the basis of this principle [1, 2] it is indeed universally accepted that any devices capable of determining the path taken by a particle trough a Young like double-aperture must destroy the interference. The justification usually presented is based on Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle [3, 4] and involves an irremediable exchange of momentum between the system consid ...
The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a large-scale mathematical model that computes equilibrium fuel prices and quantities in the U.S. energy sector. At present, to generate these equilibrium values, NEMS sequentially solves a collection of linear programs and nonlinear equations. The NEMS solution procedure then incorporates the solutions of these linear programs and nonlinear equations in a nonlinear Gauss-Seidel approach. We describe how the current version of NEMS can be formulated ...
The two main claims raised by Hyllus and Sjö qvist [1] (HS) are that: (a) The local effect on the magnetic moment and the nonlocal phase shift are attributed to a single degree of freedom, and therefore such complementarity [2] cannot exist. (b) To demonstrate this, they argue that a verification measurement of the local effect does not destroy the interference. While we cannot agree with the first claim, we agree that under certain circumstances (which we discuss), a verification measurement i ...
This paper studies a firm’s joint decisions of ex ante inventory procurement and capacity investment, and ex post production and pricing. The firm invests in multiple capacities and input inventories in the face of end-product market uncertainty; the input inventory can be transformed into end-products by the capacities through certain production technologies at a later time when the market sizes are observed. The endproduct demands are endogenously determined by the realized market sizes and ...
We consider the problem of designing state feedback control laws for output regulation in a class of dynamical systems which are described by variational inequalities and ordinary differential equations. In our setup, these variational inequalities are used to model state trajectories constrained to evolve within time-varying, closed, and convex sets, and systems with complementarity relations. We first derive conditions to study the existence and uniqueness of solutions in such systems. The der ...
Intrinsic disorder in proteins plays important roles in transcriptional regulation, translation, and cellular signal transduction. The experimental annotation of the disorder lags behind the rapidly accumulating number of known protein chains, which motivates the development of computational predictors of disorder. Some of these methods address predictions of certain types/flavors of the disorder and recent years show that consensus-based predictors provide a viable way to improve predictive per ...
In this paper we extend (and study) two computational comple-mentarity principles from Moore to Mealy automata which are nite machines possessing better \quantum-like" features. We conjecture that both computational complementarity principles are incompatible with Svozil's deenition of reversibility; experimental evidence is given in support. ...
We raise important questions about the relative contribution of public investment to economic development evaluated at individual household and firm level. By assuming perfect complementarity between private and public investment, we analyze how public investment influences household demand and firm profits. We equally raise an important issue on implication of different sources of funding public investment such as raising investment fund through tax revenue or borrowing from banks or through se ...
A novel technique for automatic thesaurus construction is proposed. It is based on the complementary use of two tools: (1) a Term Extraction tool that acquires term candidates from tagged corpora through a shallow grammar of noun phrases, and (2) a Term Clustering tool that groups syntactic variants (insertions). Experiments performed on corpora in three technical domains yield clusters of term candidates with precision rates between 93% and 98%. 1 C o m p u t a t i o n a l T e r m i n o l o g y ...
A resource endowment, represented by an index of quality, is placed into a dynamic production model to determine how resource use adjusts to meet sustainability objectives and how production input use changes with fluctuations in resource quality. Impacts of various sustainability objectives and the time path of resource quality are identified and evaluated using substitution, reversibility and uncertainty criteria. Introduction When attempting to sustain natural resources, we find ourselves in ...
Price changes create a range of factor price adjustments in the three factor, two good general equilibrium model of production. Comparative static adjustments in the model have been described by magnification effects and sign patterns. This note supplements the diagrammatic technique of Jones and Easton (1983, Journai of International Economics) and derives eleven magnification effects implied by the sign patterns of Thompson (1985, Canadian Journal oj'Economics). At the bottom line, only one ty ...
Decentralization is a fashionable reform, adopted by many countries with different characteristics. There are doubts, though, about its objectives and impact. Did inspiration come from a desire to improve quality or from a need to share the financial burden? Does it not increase disparities and the workload for local officials and headteachers? Against this background, the International Institute for Educational Planning, in collaboration with ministries of education, a national institute and th ...
In this paper, we present a novel method that utilizes the accumulation of knowledge in a rule base for solving the nonlinear frictional gripper problem for both the isotropic and orthotropic cases. The knowledge is discovered and accumulated in a rule base with the aid of a genetic based machine learning mechanism. This machine learning mechanism extracts rules for solving the problem with the help of the Evolutionary Programming (EP) algorithm. The retrievals are done using the nearest-classif ...
Biodiversity hotspots are areas of high priority for conservation (Reid 1998). They may be selected on the basis of their local species richness, degree of concentration of rare species (Prendergast et al. 1993) or the two measures combined with some assessment of urgency for conservation action (Myers et al. 2000). More targeted approaches identify " hotspots of complementarity " on the basis of their relative contribution to attaining an overall conservation goal (Dobson et al. 1997). Smith et ...
This article is concerned with the usability and implementation of multimodal user interfaces. We show how the usability of such systems can be characterized in terms of the relations they are able to maintain between the modalities they support. Equivalence, assignment, redundancy, and complementarity of modalities form an interesting set of relations relevant to usability assessment and software design. We use the notion of compatibility between user preferences and system properties to show h ...
Like science, engineering engages in analysis and synthesis. But whereas scientists tend to break matter down to its most basic building blocks, engineers ultimately aim to assemble myriad components into a complex system. Because the components are heterogeneous, engineers must integrate knowledge in many areas, and multidisciplinary teamwork is common practice. Like science, engineering covers both the general and the particular. But whereas scientists tend to design particular experiments for ...
During the last two decades a growing number of universities, mainly from developed countries, have established campuses in developing countries. From the developing countries’ perspective, attracting foreign universities helps mitigate financial constraints and capacity shortages that impair the state’s ability to provide greater access to tertiary education, while also improving teaching and research in general. However, foreign universities may also be detrimental if they crowd-out their ...
Extending our previous work on linear complementarity systems (LCSs) with the P-property, this paper establishes that a certain class of LCSs of the positive semidefinite-plus type does not have Zeno states. An intrinsic feature of such an LCS is that it has a unique continuously differentiable state solution for any initial condition, albeit the associated algebraic linear complementarity problem has non- unique solutions. Applications of our results to constrained dynamic optimization, and mor ...
Anthropogenic landscape simplification and natural habitat loss can negatively affect wild bees. Alternatively, anthropogenic land-use change may diversify landscapes, creating complementary habitats that maintain overall resource continuity and diversity. We examined the effects of landscape composition, including land-cover diversity and percent semi-natural habitat, on wild bee abundance and species richness within apples, a pollinator-dependent crop. We also explored whether different habita ...
This paper addresses a General Linear Complementarity Problem (GLCP) that has found applications in global optimization. It is shown that a solution of the GLCP can be computed by finding a stationary point of a differentiable function over a set defined by simple bounds on the variables. The application of this result to the solution of bilinear programs and LCPs is discussed. Some computational evidence of its usefulness is included in the last part of the paper. ...
[1] Previous studies have shown that postseismic relaxation following the 2004 Mw6.0 Parkfield, CA, earthquake is dominated by afterslip. However, we show that some fraction of the afterslip inferred from kinematic inversion to have occurred immediately below the seismically ruptured area may in fact be a substitute for viscous postseismic deformation of the lower crust. Using continuous GPS and synthetic aperture radar interferometry, we estimate the relative contribution of shallow afterslip ( ...
Multisensor data fusion and integration is a rapidly evolving research area that requires interdisciplinary knowledge in control theory, signal processing, artificial intelligence, probability and statistics, etc. Multisensor data fusion refers to the synergistic combination of sensory data from multiple sensors and related information to provide more reliable and accurate information than could be achieved using a single, independent sensor (Luo et al., 2007). Actually Multisensor data fusion i ...
If people face the possibility of catching an infectious disease and have the option of a completely e¤ective vaccine against it, how many will choose to be vaccinated? Clearly not all, as if everyone else is vaccinated there is no incentive for me to join them: I face no risk. Likewise if no one is vaccinated then everyone has a strong incentive to be vaccinated, so we do not expect that no one being vaccinated is an equilibrium. It seems from this that there should be an interior solution wit ...
The major contribution of this paper concerns vehicle geo-localization in urban environment by integrating a new source of information that is a virtual 3D city model. The 3D model provides a realistic representation of the vehicle's navigation environment. To optimize the performance of vehicle geo-localization system, several sources of information are used for their complementarity and redundancy: a GPS receiver, proprioceptive sensors (odometers and gyrometer), exteroceptive sensors (video c ...
In this paper we propose to study the potential of jointly using polarimetric and tomographic SAR data to recognize and localize buildings in complex scenarios. We present extraction methods for both polarimetric and tomographic features. One the one hand, we propose to use the polarimetric bilateral filter that has proved to be a powerful tool to retrieve the polarimetric covariance matrix while reducing speckle and preserving edges. Thus, polarimetric decompositions can be used for physical in ...
Acknowledgements This dissertation is the result of five fortunate years of learning from and engaging with people with very distinct opinions, rationales and knowledge. To my primary advisor, David Levine, I owe a debt that keeps increasing as I continue to discover the ways in which he has influenced my understanding of Economics. I owe him the most for the sense of honesty in research and the consequent rigor that he advocates by example. Each chapter in this thesis has benefitted from detail ...
A method for spatial electric load forecasting using a reduced set of data is presented. The method uses a cellular automata model for the spatiotemporal allocation of new loads in the service zone. The density of electrical load for each of the major consumer classes in each cell is used as the current state, and a series of update rules are established to simulate <i>S</i>-growth behavior and the complementarity among classes. The most important features of this method are good per ...
Automated theorem provers use search strategies. Unfortunately, no strategy is uniformly successful on all problems. This motivates us to spend the available resources in terms of processors and time on diierent strategies. In this paper, we develop the basic concept of the complementarity of strategy sets. The problems of the initial strategy selection are discussed in detail. The paper also contains a short description of an implementation of a strategy parallel theorem prover (p-SETHEO) and a ...
Two kinds of dogmatism afflict the study of English grammar. They have more in common than is widely realized. On one side we have tradition-bound fundamentalists who take the rules to be clear and simple regulative principles laid down centuries ago by unquestionable authorities. On the other, we have theoretical linguists, who correctly take grammatical principles as a topic for discovery rather than stipulation, but insist that the detail and complexity of grammar must be explainable through ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, approximately 22 nucleotide RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by base-pairing to complementary sites in the target mRNA. The first miRNA, lin-4, was discovered in 1993 in Caenorhabditis elegans; since then hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in C. elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, plants, mouse, and humans, where they approach a number equivalent to 1-2% of the protein-coding genes. With the exception of plants, miRNAs most commonly regul ...
Extractable and solvent insoluble, ester-bound lipids were analysed in an acid, sandy soil profile under Corsican pine. The n-alkanes and alkanoic acids from the soil profile showed rather poor correlations with those from the pine needles and roots, while the n-alkanol composition in the mineral horizons strongly indicated the presence of lipids derived from a previous grass vegetation. Although the ester-bound lipids (ω-hydroxyalkanoic acids and α,ω-alkanedioic acids (>C24)) suggested th ...
PLOrk Beat Science (PBS) arose from the desire to explore the intersection of traditional and new music paradigms. We experiment with the fusion of divergent genres and forage through the tensions and complementarity between improvisation and automation, acoustic and electronic, spontaneity and control, human and machine. PBS 2.0 explores effective production of laptop chamber music and the interaction of human and machine intelligence. Sound emanates from individual laptops via (five) omni-dire ...
This paper examines the role of peer effects in teenagers’ smoking behavior in the United States. I present a random utility model that incorporates complementarity between individual and peer smoking. A Markov process model of smoking interactions between individuals is presented. I estimate the structural parameters of the model using a steady state distribution that is determined by the Markov process. The empirical results strongly support the presence of positive peer effects. Interesting ...
In this paper we establish the existence of a discrete zero point of a function from the n-dimensional integer lattice Z to the n-dimensional Euclidean space IR under very general conditions with respect to the behaviour of the function. The proof is constructive and uses a combinatorial argument based on a simplicial algorithm with vector labeling and lexicographic linear programming pivot steps. The algorithm provides an efficient method to find an exact solution. We also discuss how to adapt ...
The aim of this paper is to test the presence of strategic interactions in government spending on Research and Development (R&D) among EU-15 countries. We add to the literature on public choice strategic interactions in general, and to work on R&D spending in particular. We take account of traditional and some overlooked factors related to countries' public R&D spending, including (i) the international context – i.e. Lisbon strategy; (ii) country characteristics the National System of Innovati ...
This contribution is concerned with the development, analysis and implementation of Adaptive Finite Element Methods (AFEMs) for distributed and boundary control problems with control constraints. AFEMs consist of successive loops of the cycle ’SOLVE’, ’ESTIMATE’, ’MARK’, and ’REFINE’. Emphasis will be on the steps ’SOLVE’ and ’ESTIMATE’. In this context, ’SOLVE’ stands for the efficient solution of the finite element discretized problems and the following step ’ESTI ...
The paper presents a simple model of a locked-in situation. Recent literature on pathdependence has explained locked-in situations with increasing returns to scale or network externalities. The model of this paper is a model of a single firm (there is no network of different agents) with a given size (there are no economies of scale). Our analyses shows that complementarity of a firm's assets and sunk costs can be sufficient for path-dependence. Journal of Economic Literature Classification: O30 ...
The issue of the interaction between trade and labor mobility has become a major topic in the context of economic integration and trade liberalization. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of international labor mobility from the standpoint of new developments in trade theory, by asking the following question: does trade liberalization result in the substitution or complementarity between trade in goods and labor mobility? The study builds on the classical theory of interna ...