Influenza due to Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (Total 1564138 Papers Found)

Seroepidemiological investigations performed with 1,620 serum samples and serodiagnostic tests with 166 paired sera demonstrated that swine influenza virus type A/New Jersey 8/76 (Hsw1N1) played no role in the epidemiology of human influenza in a large town of Romania during 1977. ...
Although mentioned in the UK pandemic plan, essential service providers were not among the priority groups. They may be important targets of future influenza pandemic vaccination campaigns. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 380 employees from West Midlands police headquarters and 15 operational command units in the West Midlands Area during December 2009-February 2010 to identify factors affecting intention to accept the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. One hundred and n ...
Outbreaks of avian, human and swine influenza are a serious concern for public health. In the reproductive cycle of the influenza virus, hemagglutinin (HA) is the primary protein responsible for binding to glycan receptor sites on the host cell surface. MD simulations of avian H5, swine H1 and human H1 complexed with S23G and S26G receptors were performed to study the role of key residues on the receptor conformational behaviors, hydrogen bond formation, binding free energy and residue-wise ener ...
As pigs are susceptible to infection with both avian and human influenza A viruses, they have been proposed to be an intermediate host for the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans. In April 2006, a disease caused by highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in several pig farms and subsequently overwhelmed almost half of China with more than 2,000,000 cases of pig infection. Here we report a case in which four swine H9N2 influenza viruses w ...
  • J. M. Wood,
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2001
Pandemic influenza presents special problems for vaccine development. There must be a balance between rapid availability of vaccine and the safeguards to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of vaccine. Vaccine was developed for the pandemics of 1957, 1968, 1977 and for the pandemic alert of 1976. This experience is compared with that gained in developing vaccines for a possible H5N1 pandemic in 1997-1998. Our ability to mass produce influenza vaccines against a pandemic threat was well illustrat ...
A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) test was developed to differentiate between H1 and H3 subtypes of swine influenza virus (SIV). The sensitivity and specificity of this test was evaluated by comparing the results of the PCR test with subtyping results of an immunological assay performed at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL). The test was performed on 68 eggderived SIV isolates, as well as directly on 30 lung homogenates. The data suggest that a PCR-based ...
In 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) was widely criticised for failing to anticipate that an outbreak of Ebola in a remote forested region of south-eastern Guinea would trigger a public health emergency of international concern (pheic). In explaining the WHO's failure, critics have pointed to structural restraints on the United Nations organisation and a leadership 'vacuum' in Geneva, among other factors. This paper takes a different approach. Drawing on internal WHO documents and intervi ...
The recent H1N1 ("swine flu") pandemic and recent H5N1 ("avian flu") outbreaks have brought increased attention to the study of the role of animal populations as reservoirs for pathogens that could invade human populations. It is believed that pigs acquired flu strains from birds and humans, acting as a mixing vessel in generating new influenza viruses. Assessing the role of animal reservoirs, particularly reservoirs involving highly mobile populations (like migratory birds), on disease dispersa ...
Burden of Influenza is significantly higher in developing countries as compared to developed countries, but the data on the disease burden is less well defined in most of the developing countries including India, and consequently, constraints evolving strategies for prioritization of measures to prevent and control it. The swine flu or A(H1N1) pandemic is on the wane but the virus continues to circulate causing sporadic outbreaks even in 2013. The A(H1N1)pdm09 has replaced the previous circulati ...
To borrow a line from the movie Babe about a precocious piglet, there was a time, not so long ago, when pig flu researchers were afforded little respect except by other pig researchers. Important swine influenza discoveries were relegated to Veterinary Microbiology and other specialty journals, while highly lethal avian influenza won all the headlines. But now, pig studies have taken on a new cachet because of the swine origins of the 2009 A(H1N1) strain that’s causing the current pandemic—a ...
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are responsible for unnecessary patient deaths making them a major public health issue. Literature estimates 1% of ADEs recorded in Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are reported to federal databases making EHRs a vital source of ADE-related information. Using Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC)'s EHRs, we developed an algorithm to mine for vaccine-related ADEs occurring within 3 months of vaccination. In phase one, we measured the association between vaccinated p ...
The decision to undertake a nationwide program of vaccination against swine influenza requires assessment of the status of immunity of those in various age groups in our population against this agent. Pools of serum were collected from persons born in the years from 1889 to 1943; they were tested for hemaggultinin inhibiting (HI) antibody against the HSW 1N1 influenza virus strains isolated in 1931 and 1976. The titers secured serve as an indication of the average level of immunity of those of d ...
Swine influenza is widely prevalent in swine herds in North America and Europe causing enormous economic losses and a public health threat. Pigs can be infected by both avian and mammalian influenza viruses and are sources of generation of reassortant influenza viruses capable of causing pandemics in humans. Current commercial vaccines provide satisfactory immunity against homologous viruses; however, protection against heterologous viruses is not adequate. In this study, we evaluated the protec ...
At the outset of the 2009 H1N1 influenza ("swine flu") pandemic, Mexican nationals and Mexican commodities were shunned globally, and, in the United States, some media personalities characterized Mexican immigrants as disease vectors who were a danger to the country. We investigated instances in the U.S. of stigmatization of Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs) and developed guidance for officials in curtailing its effects. At the same time, we explored social factors that make farmwo ...
Situated in neo-democratic globalizing Northeast Brazil, this anthropological study probes the role of ecological context in framing, experiencing, and expressing human distress. Ethnographic interviews, narratives, and "contextualized semantic analysis" reveal the lived experience of childhood respiratory diseases among 22 urban mangrove dwellers. Informants speak an "eco-idiom of respiratory distress" based on a popular "eco-logic", reflecting the harsh reality of "living in dampness". "Higher ...
BACKGROUND Effectiveness of pandemic plans and community compliance was extensively researched following the H1N1 pandemic. This systematic review examined community response studies to determine whether behavioural responses to the pandemic were related to level of knowledge about the pandemic, perceived severity of the pandemic and level of concern about the pandemic. METHODS Literature databases were searched from March 2009 to August 2011 and included cross-sectional or repeated population ...
BACKGROUND The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu) were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. METHODS Purposive sampling was ...
Pigs serve as a valuable animal experimental model for several respiratory pathogens, including Swine Influenza Virus (SIV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bbr). To investigate the effect of SIV and Bbr coinfection on cytokine and viral RNA expression, we performed a study in which pigs were inoculated with SIV, Bbr or both pathogens (SIV/Bbr). Our results indicate that Bbr infection alters SIV clearance. Pulmonary lesions in the SIV/Bbr group were more severe when compared to SIV or Bbr groups a ...
BACKGROUND Human-to-swine transmission of the pandemic H1N1 2009 [A(H1N1)pdm09] virus in pig populations resulted in reassortment events with endemic swine influenza viruses worldwide. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether A(H1N1)pdm09-derived reassortant viruses are present in South Korea and sought to determine the pathogenic potential of the novel swine viruses. METHODS Pig lung tissues were collected from commercially slaughtered pigs. Isolated swine influenza viruses were genetically analyz ...
The influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in virus replication, virulence and inhibition of the host antiviral immune response. In the avian influenza virus or human influenza virus, specific amino acids of NS1 have been shown to be important for the virus to antagonize host antiviral defenses and promote viral replication. However, little research has been reported regarding the swine influenza virus (SIV) NS1 protein. To stud ...
Cross hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) tests demonstrated strong antigenic relationship between A/Swine/Wisconsin/1/73 (SW/73) and A/Swine/Shope/15/31 (SW/31) influenza viruses. An eightyone fold purification of virus was achieved by adsorption and elution followed by differential ultracentrifugation and sedimentation through linear sucrose gradient. Radio-immunoassay using purified125I labeled viral antigens revealed antigenic variation between the two virus is ...
The Influenza A H1N1 pandemic (A H1N1) occurred between June 2009 and August 2010. Although the pandemic is now over, the virus has emerged as the predominant strain in the current seasonal influenza phase in the northern hemisphere. The A H1N1 influenza is a novel strain of the influenza A virus and is widely known as swine flu. The virus contains a mixture of genetic material from human, pig and bird flu virus. It is a new variety of flu which people have not had much immunity to. Much has bee ...
PREGNANT WOMEN, HOUSEHOLD contacts of infants younger than 6 months, health care and emergency services personnel, individuals between 6 months and 24 years, and those aged 25 years or older with underlying conditions that put them at high risk of complications from influenza should be at the front of the line when a vaccine for the currently circulating novel H1N1 influenza virus becomes available, according to advisors to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). During a specia ...
A novel influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin emerged in the spring of 2009 and spread very rapidly among people. The severity of the disease and the number of deaths caused by a pandemic virus varies greatly and can change over time. For these reasons it becomes a challenge to study the genomic features that characterize this new virus. At the same time, the theory and methods of signal processing are becoming increasingly important in molecular biology, especially in the analysis of genomic ...
In 1976, a late winter outbreak of swine flu at a military base in the USA led to fears of a devastating pandemic. President Gerald Ford announced a plan to vaccinate everyone in the country. By the end of the year, 40 million out of some 200 million Americans were vaccinated for the new strain, but no pandemic appeared and public health credibility suffered. Dr Harvey Fineberg tells the Bulletin why his 1978 study of that public health response is still relevant today. Dr Harvey V Fineberg is t ...
Methods—In a herd free of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), 300 growing/finishing pigs were vaccinated according to one of five protocols: 1) a single PRV vaccination, 2) a double SIV vaccination, 3) a single PRV and a double SIV vaccination, 4) a double PRV and a double SIV vaccination, and 5) no vaccination (control). Average daily gain (ADG), average total feed consumption (ATFC), feed conversion ratio (F:G), and pathological and bacteriological findings were comp ...
The relative mildness of the pandemic 2009 (H1N1) swine influenza virus compared to the 1918 pandemic (H1N1) virus may be due to a variety of possible causes, including the existence of effective immunity in the host, the lessened ability of the virus to bind to target cells or to replicate in them, a diminished secretion of molecules that could cause further complications like pneumonia, etc. A comparison of the hemagglutinin sequences from the pandemic 2009 (H1N1) viruses with that of the 1918 ...
accused Labour of exploiting the virus for political ends,” said the Daily Mail (31 December). “He rejected claims by Shadow Health Secretary John Healey that the government had cancelled a flu jab plan for under-fives to save money.” Meanwhile, as The Guardian reported on the same day, Health Secretary Andrew Lansley had reinstated a “Catch It, Bin It, Kill It” advertising campaign. “It had been discontinued despite helping educate the public to adopt good hygiene habits during last ...
Sir, Swine flu is a new emerging infectious disease that has just emerged since early 2009.[1-2] Starting from its primary foci in Mexico, the new disease is currently spread around the world (July 2009). The new disease is accepted as a new variant of influenza virus infection. It is an atypical influenza caused by a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus infection. Similar to classical influenza, death can be the outcome of this new emerging infection. In this specific paper, the author hereby rep ...
In the post-pandemic period, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been detected in swine populations in different parts of the world. This study was conducted to determine the presence and spatial patterns of this human pandemic virus among Nigerian pigs and identify associated risk factors. Using a two-stage stratified random sampling method, nasal swab specimens were obtained from pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 influenza seasons, and the virus was detected by reverse tr ...
A swine influenza H1N1 virus was isolated from a pig during a severe outbreak of respiratory disease in Korea. All genes of the H1N1 isolate, including hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), nucleoprotein (NP), non-structural (NS), PA, PB1 and PB2, were of swine origin. Also, all these genes showed a close phylogenic relationship with those of H1N1 viruses previously isolated from pigs in the United States. These results suggest that North American swine influenza virus has actually ...
Swine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory viral infection in pigs that is responsible for significant financial losses to pig farmers annually. Current measures to protect herds from infection include: inactivated whole-virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, and alpha replicon-based vaccines. As is true for influenza vaccines for humans, these strategies do not provide broad protection against the diverse strains of influenza A virus (IAV) currently circulating in U.S. swine. Improved approa ...
Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collab ...
Swine influenza is caused by type A influenza virus. Pigs can be infected by both avian and human influenza viruses; therefore, the influenza virus infection in pigs is considered an important public health concern. The aims of present study were to asses the seroprevalence of swine influenza subtypes in Spain and explore the risk factors associated with the spread of those infections. Serum samples from 2151 pigs of 98 randomly selected farms were analyzed by an indirect ELISA for detection of ...
eMJA RAPID ONLINE PUBLICATION UPDATED 13 AUGUST 2009 inc inf an S e the initial reports of H1N1 influenza (human swine luenza; caused by influenza A/2009/H1N1/swl) in Mexico d the United States in mid April 2009, many thousands of cases have been reported worldwide. At the time of writing, community transmission is becoming established in many areas in Australia, but the number of reported cases is likely to be an underestimate of the true incidence due to policies for testing. These guidelines ...
Since March 2009, the rapid spread of infection during the recent A/H1N1 swine flu pandemic has raised concerns of a far more dangerous outcome should this virus become resistant to current drug therapies. Currently oseltamivir (tamiflu) is intensively used for the treatment of influenza and is reported effective for 2009 A/H1N1 virus. However, as this virus is evolving fast, some drug-resistant strains are emerging. Therefore, it is critical to seek alternative treatments and identify roots of ...
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of chemoprophylactic dose of oseltamivir in preventing H1N1 by comparing the rates of acute respiratory illness and H1N1 positivity of respiratory specimens between HCP with and without consumption of oseltamivir working in swine flu ICU. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on HCP posted in "Swine Flu Intensive Care Unit" from October 2009 to March 2010. Data on infection control measures, chemoprophylactic use of oseltamivir, flu-like illness, ADR ...
INTRODUCTION The development of a monovalent 2009 H1N1 influenza (swine flu) vaccine for the 2009-2010 season prompted a nationwide campaign of vaccination. The authors assessed the frequency of influenza vaccine usage among 3858 elderly patients with their practice and the most common barriers to receiving vaccine. METHODS The authors calculated the usage of seasonal and 2009 H1N1 vaccines among seniors with their university practice and surveyed a cohort of 64 patients to determine whether t ...
Influenza A (H1N1) virus, a genetic reassortment of endemic strain of human, avian flu and swine flu, with an inherent ability to mutate continuously has developed a subtype which is causing present flu in humans. As on 10th May, 2009, twenty nine countries are affected with officially reported 4379 cases with Mexico--1626 affected (45 deaths), US 2254 affected (02 deaths); Canada 280 (01 deaths) and Costa Ricia -8 cases (01 death) respectively. Rest of 15 countries have reported less than 100 o ...
Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infecti ...
The genome of the virus H1N1 2009 consists of eight segments but maximum number of mutations occurs at segments 1 and 4, coding for PB2 subunit of hemagglutinin. Comparatively less number of mutations occur at segment 6, coding for neuraminidase. Two antiviral drugs, oseltamivir and zanamivir are commonly prescribed for treating H1N1 infection. Alternate medical systems do compete equally; andrographolide in Siddha and gelsemine in Homeopathy. Recent studies confirm the efficacy of eugenol from ...